Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Economic Effects of Mardi Gras

Economic Effects of Mardi Gras
Written by: Nick K.

Mardi Gras is a celebration before the fasting of Lent. It is celebrated for 12 days. This years main day of celebration is on Febuary, 28th. It is a christian celebration however it is not only celebrated for religion purposes. Although it is not a true American holiday or listed as one of our nation's holidays many deeply rooted french cities take pride in Mardi Gras and celebrate it every year.
It has significance all across the world; however the one city it is most known in is New Orleans. The effect of the celebration on New Orleans is huge. Due to the scarce amount of celebrations in the U.S. New orleans attracts nearly 1.5 million people a year. Last year alone 3.5 times New Orleans populations was at the festivities. New Orleans spends on average 3.33 million dollars a year. They see a return on the investment of 4.5 dollars per dollar they spend. The benefit for hotels in New Orleans area is 56 million dollars in the 12 days.
Suppliers of the world famous beads might be the happiest of all. They produce and ship nearly 25 million pounds of beads. Most of the beads are imported from China. This does not improve the GDP of the U.S.A. Although this is not impacting the economy but in New Orleans it is positively affected all week. 1.5 million cups are sold, 2.5 million spanish coins are thrown. Everything in related to Mardi Gras is go big or go home.
The graph on the right shows spending by tourists as well as the amount of tourist. Before Katrina in 2005 New Orleans was at an all time high tourists. This is mainly because of the millions that Mardi Gras attracts. In 2011 nearly 20% of tourists for the whole year were just because of Mardi Gras. This number will grow in the future and only keep improving the economy of New Orleans as well as attracting more and more tourists.

Works Cited

"Beyond Recovery: New Orleans Boasts as a Top Destination for Tourists." TMG Insights - The TMG Consulting Blog. N.p., 24 Apr. 2012. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.

"Mardi Gras." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Feb. 2017. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.

Rhodes, Margaret. "Mardi Gras Mambo." Fast Company. N.p., 30 July 2012. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.

Shamrock Shake Season

MacKenzie Schill
Mrs. Straub
AP Econ
28 February, 2017
Shamrock Shake Season
Now that winter is coming to a close, and March is right around the corner, America is are ready for the white snow to turn to green grass, just like they are ready for their vanilla shake order to turn to a green, minty charm - or in other words the unveiling of the Shamrock Shake from McDonald’s. This mint-flavored favorite has been only been available nationwide since 2012, selling over 35 million beverages. (LedBetter) Every year people anticipate its return for months, hoping to rekindle their long lost relationship with this seasonal phenomenon. Those who are not American fast food lovers, and have not experienced the delight of the Shamrock Shake, might wonder what makes this drink so popular compared to the rest? The truth lies beneath the economic components that partner with this special treat. The scarcity, seasonal trends, and company popularity are all factors that play a part in making the return of McDonald’s Shamrock Shakes so successful.

(Billboard advertisement for McDonald’s Shamrock Shake)

Many people may think that the return of the Shamrock Shake is every March, but to McDonald’s fanatics and lovers, the real return was in 2012. This was the recent release of the minty drink but it was originally introduced in 1970 as the St. Patrick’s Day Shake. However at this time, in the mix of an oligopoly, McDonald’s was no where near what is is today. So the delicious drinks name wasn’t catchy enough and was scrapped from the menu just a few years later. Since the growing and popularity of the franchise, McDonald’s tried a more alliterative route changing the name to Shamrock Shake. Now that McDonald’s is the leading fast food restaurant in the world, the total revenue and quantity sold has increased solely on the fact that McDonald’s is the restaurant offering them. (Top) Other fast-food restaurants offer trade-offs original products like vanilla, chocolate, and caramel beverages, but nothing unique like the Shamrock Shake. This also ties into McDonald’s being the “popular choice” which influences where people choose to spend their money, and alters consumer expectations.
Even though McDonald's is so popular, the scarcity of Shamrock Shake definitely adds to its extremely high demand. McDonald’s uses a strategic pricing and limitation plan to make to ensure there is not too much of an input increase, which would cause marginal output to decrease and result in diminishing marginal returns in Shamrock Shakes. Therefore there some minty desserts accessible all year, but McDonald’s niche is m their delicious minty shake is not available majority of the year, and consumers are only able to enjoy their favorite drink over a one month period. This low supply creates a very high demand, especially following the eleven month drought, shake lovers are at their peak withdrawal and are willing to purchase a higher quantity even at a higher price. Since the drink is only available for a limited time, the decision of whether to offer the beverage at individual stores is up to the franchise owner. While most choose to offer this restricted drink, some do not which turns the US McDonald’s map into a frosty green patches of have and have-nots.(McDonald) The limited supply actually upsets customers is specific areas since the demand is so high. The Los Angeles area is a notable Shamrock Shake deadzone, with heartbroken seekers from across southern California. One customer said “My kids are very sad!” while another said  “[they are] heartbroken, why has [McDonald’s] done this to us!”(Purtill) This only goes to show that only provided this drink over a specific time period increases the demand which overall increases the popularity of the product and total revenue for the company.
The scarcity of the Shamrock Shake really is determined by the seasonal characteristics that play a part in McDonald’s profit of Shamrock Shakes. Since there is a high opportunity cost because the shake is only offered one month out of the year and they could sell it for longer or all year, the seasonal impact of March and St. Patrick’s Day comes into major effect.  This has to do with the demographics of America since nearly 127 million people celebrate St. Patrick’s Day which means that about 51.2% of our popular celebrates this holiday. (Kiernan) And of course it accompanies purchasing green foods and products. McDonald’s decided to take advantage of the Patties Day celebrations and trends because when March rolls around, buyers are already seeking green oriented foods, and beverages and decor.  
All in all, due to the scarcity, seasonal cravings, and company popularity, McDonald’s Shamrock Shakes have become an extremely popular early-spring beverage. It is estimated that McDonald’s will sell over $150 million of Shamrock Shakes this March as they are offering new varieties like: the traditional mix McDonald’s vanilla custard with green mint-flavored syrup, a chocolate version featuring two layers, a chocolate shake on bottom and the mint-custard mix on top, a Shamrock Chocolate Chip Frappe which is a mixture of mint syrup, mocha, and caramel frappe, and lastly Shamrock versions of hot chocolate and frappe, which simply add the mint syrup to both beverages. (DeJesus) The shake-up in the menu will attract even more customers and make McDonald’s Shamrock shake that much more exclusive.
(Photo of the original Shamrock Shake along with the new beverage offered this March)

Works Cited
DeJesus, Erin. “Brace Yourself: New Shamrock Shake Flavors Coming to McDonald's.”Eater, Eater, 6 Feb. 2017, www.eater.com/2017/2/6/14521142/mcdonalds-shamrock-shake-chocolate-new-flavor. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.
Kiernan, John S. “St. Patrick’s Day 2016 By The Numbers.” WalletHub, Evolution Finance , 16 Mar. 2016, wallethub.com/blog/st-patricks-day-statistics/10960/. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.
McDonald, Andy. “Here's Everything You Want To Know About The Shamrock Shake. And Some Things You Don't.” The Huffington Post, TheHuffingtonPost.com, 14 Mar. 2015, www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/14/shamrock-shake-information_n_4916266.html. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.
Purtill, Corinne. “The annual search for the McDonald’s Shamrock Shake is a map of heartbreak and triumph.” Quartz, Quartz, 17 Mar. 2016, qz.com/641937/the-annual-search-for-the-mcdonalds-shamrock-shake-is-a-map-of-heartbreak-and-triumph/. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.
“Top 10 Largest Fast Food Chains In The World.” The Mysterious World, 25 Nov. 2016, themysteriousworld.com/top-10-largest-fast-food-chains-in-the-world/. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.
Ledbetter, Carly. “McDonald's Shamrock Shake Is Back!” The Huffington Post, TheHuffingtonPost.com, 20 Feb. 2015, www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/20/shamrock-shake-coming-back_n_6721620.html. Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.

Monday, February 27, 2017

The Demonetization of Indian Currency

The Demonetization of Indian Currency - Zenkar Kollurmath

On the 8th of November, 2016 the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, declared circulation of all ₹500 and ₹1,000 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series as invalid effective from the midnight of the same day, and announced the issuance of new ₹500 and ₹2,000 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series in exchange for the old banknotes. This was a bold move in the nation's economic landscape. The sudden nature of the announcement and the prolonged cash shortages in the weeks that followed created significant disruption throughout the economy, threatening economic output.

Although there exist many drawbacks of this decision, the problem this move was set to solve was solved. The goal was to combat tax evasion by "black money" held outside the formal economic system, and also to aid the fight against terrorism. There exist many cases where a corrupt citizen was caught when trying to exchange their cash. But the major impact that the policy has had is the eradication of terrorist funding. The surrender rate among radicals, like the Maoists and the Naxalites,  has reached its highest since the demonetization was announced. Many drug cartels have also been brought into the open as their primary source of revenue has been cut off. The introduction of the new notes has also posed a problem for the counterfeiting business. With added measures of security to prevent counterfeiting, the problem has decreased severely in the months following the announcement.

Now looking at the negatives of the decision, we see that although the goal was met, a ripple effect of economic downfalls has befallen the country. With 86% of India’s Currency nullified overnight, Economic output has decreased critically. The stock market crashed the next day and cash shortages still plague the country. There have also been many accounts of deaths in the long queues at banks and even at hospitals, who refused to take the nullified money in exchange for their services. Many riots and strike have also emerged as a result of the cash shortages. The GDP has seen a projected decline in the near future. It is literally the multiplier effect blown out of proportion.
People wait in long line at the bank, trying to exchange their money.
People wait in long line at the bank, trying to exchange their money.

Many Economists have heavily criticized the decision and many have even called the decision a “Massive Man-made disaster”. While the intent and positives make a naive case for the policy, the negatives hold the decision as a poorly executed one. I honestly don’t know which side to take, and thus have qualified the situation to say that this was a lose-lose situation for the policy makers. If they had more people involved in the makings of the policy, the chance of the idea leaking would have skyrocketed and would have nullified the intent of the policy. But with such a small number of people (only 10 people were aware of the situation before the announcement) aware of the policy, the preparation for the announcement was sub-par, bringing about the drawbacks of the situation. What would you do to solve the issues of tax evasion?

Works Cited

"2016 Indian banknote demonetisation." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Feb. 2017. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

Shepard, Wade. "One Month In, What's The Impact Of India's Demonetization Fiasco?" Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 12 Dec. 2016. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

"When Money Dies - India's Demonetization Is A "Massive Man-Made Disaster"." ZeroHedge. N.p., 24 Nov. 2016. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

Borders Vs. Walls: Is it Worth the Costs?

Kaitlyn Boelter-Eberhardt
Mrs. Straub
Advanced Economics
28 February 2017

Borders Vs. Walls: Is it Worth the Costs?

As of January 20, 2017, Donald Trump has been inaugurated as the President of the United States of America. Along with his inauguration to presidency comes his plans for this country, one of which has been a major controversy around the world as it becomes more of a reality. So what should we really believe? From the beginning, Trump has incorporated the idea of building a wall along the border of Mexico into his campaign as a way to stop illegal immigration crossing and included finding all the illegals and sending them back to their countries in order to gain back jobs for the American people. Now that Donald Trump has become president and this theory is being turned into a reality, people are beginning to wonder the positives and opportunity costs if this potential action is to be fulfilled. Yet, the evidence shows that this can only be seen in the perspective of positive economics, meaning that it can be proven there will be more costs to the production of this wall than positives.  
Donald Trump told the world that he would begin to build this wall from day one and thus, to fulfill his election pledge, he signed an executive order to put it into the workings. Yet, with this pledge, he told the American people that the Mexicans would pay for this large project and that has been proven a lie. Does everyone believe that though? There is nearly 2,000 miles worth of land across that border that Trump wants this wall to cover. Below shows the 650 miles of existing fencing that was put up by the United States government in 2006 and that only cost nearly $7 billion. He says that his estimate for the cost of the wall is $8 billion to $12 billion because he has always claimed, “ I would build a great wall, and nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I build them very inexpensively” (BBC) while the U.S department of Homeland Security has shown evidence that estimates the cost to be more than $20 billion dollars (Reuters). This would not only be a negative impact on the economy because of the cost to build the wall but also affect the tourism and businesses along the border. This plan that has been told to the world has truly not been analyzed thoroughly as there is way too much risk in the many other costs besides building the wall. Unless Donald Trump takes a step back to truly figure this out then there is not a chance for the country to gain any profit or even break even and can only lead to a colossal net loss.

Works Cited

Ainsley, Julia Edwards. "Exclusive - Trump Border 'wall' to Cost $21.6 Billion, Take 3.5 Years to Build: Internal Report." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 09 Feb. 2017. Web. 26 Feb. 2017. <http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-immigration-wall-exclusive-idUSKBN15O2ZN>.
Burnett, John. "Donald Trump Moves Forward With Plan To Build Border Wall." NPR. NPR, 25 Jan. 2017. Web. 26 Feb. 2017. <http://www.npr.org/2017/01/25/511655776/donald-trump-moves-forward-with-plan-to-build-border-wall>.

"Donald Trump's Mexico Wall: Who Is Going to Pay for It?" BBC News. BBC, 06 Feb. 2017. Web. 26 Feb. 2017. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-37243269>.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Battle of the Streaming Services

Battle of Media Streaming Services
Grace Chang
On-demand media streaming services has grown vastly worldwide within the past few years. Services such as Netflix and Hulu Plus all are the most well known and common media streaming services that compete against each other. The popularity of both services have increased in their total revenue is due to the consumers’ demand of tv shows or movies for entertainment. In result, the battle of who is the better on-demand media streaming service takes place.
The three services all differ in price and what they have to offer. Netflix’s membership begins at $7.99, but increases to $11.99 as you receive more benefits. On the other hand, Hulu plus offers their members a membership at $7.99, but they do not have other benefits to branch off of. Netflix may gain a larger profit due to the differing memberships whereas Hulu may not have as large of a profit due to an even playing field for all consumers.

Benefits for Netflix have greater option of movies, TV shows, and documentaries while offering a low price. They also do not have ads for paid members. Downsides to this streaming service is lower quality videos and not as updated content. The benefits of Hulu Plus are more updated and recent content with higher quality videos. The drawbacks are that there are ads for paid viewers and a smaller options for content. In a survey out of 7,095 tweets, 29% have Netflix while 20% has Hulu Plus. 48% of these consumers have not tried Hulu Plus’ service. Although 51% said they have both. That 51% receives both of the service’s benefits, but has to pay double the price of one membership. 52% of those individuals cannot decide which service they prefer.
On-demand streaming services has increased drastically within the past few years due to consumers’ constant demand of watching what they want whenever they want. With options such as Netflix and Hulu Plus, they are able to provide for their consumer’s wants even though it is not something they need. When individuals choose just one media streaming service, their opportunity cost is losing some of the benefits from the opposing service.

Works cited:

Curtis, Jacqueline. "Netflix vs. Hulu Plus vs. Amazon Prime Comparison." Money Crashers. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

Epstein, Zach, Jacob Siegal, Yoni Heisler, and Mike Wehner. "Netflix Beats Hulu Plus in Social
Streaming Showdown [infographic]." BGR. N.p., 11 July 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

"Hulu vs Netflix Comparison." Diffen. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

Kastrenakes, Jacob. "Hulu Now Has 12 Million Subscribers, but Growth Is Slowing." The Verge.
The Verge, 04 May 2016. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

Kyle. "Netflix Vs. Amazon Prime Video Vs. Hulu Plus: Which Is Right For You?"
Rather-Be-Shopping.com. N.p., 10 Nov. 2016. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

"Number of Netflix Subscribers, Users 2016." Statista. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

How Ski Hills are Dealing with Warm Weather

How Ski Hills are Dealing with Warm Weather

Quinn Brownell

With all of these hot flashes across the country in the middle of February, ski hills are hitting a rough patch.  Normally ski hills have thrived on cold temperatures in order to make and maintain snow bases, however, temperatures have been skyrocketing causing much of the snow to melt and running the risk of ski hills producing a net loss for the season.

On an average year, skiing and snowboarding would be breaking even right around this time of the year and relying on the season going into March and April for their profit.  With the help of advancing technology, average skier days per year have risen drastically.  Skier days meaning the number of days that hills are able to stay open.  With the snow guns help, ski hills are able to make a deep base that can usually last until early April.


However buying this equipment to make and maintain snow costs quite a bit of money which is why the skiing business is so risky, especially on years such as this one.  Costs range from the cost to operate and maintain the lifts, buying and maintaining snow groomers, operating and installing water pipes to reach snow guns, and of course the snow guns themselves and maintenance.  On a good year much of last year’s profit is spent on next year’s maintenance.

The only thing that can save ski hills at this point is cold weather and snow which is looking unlikely.  It needs to be under 30 degrees in order to make quality snow and most ski hills are unwilling to make snow past January since it is a large risk if temperatures warm up and melt the snow.  However, a lift operator at Devil’s Head Ski Resort this past weekend said, “I have been here for 30 years and ever since we have never made snow past February 15th, if the weather is cold enough that will change.”

The warm temperatures are part of the problem, but also the amount of precipitation is causing problems.  With very little precipitation, snow is scarce meaning that hills have to do everything in their power in order to stay open and make profit.  Normally January and February are the best months on average for snowfall, however with a warmer climate there just isn’t as much snow as there used to be.

mean snowfall by month graph.jpg
With a large business such as running a ski hill, it can be either a very large success or a terrible failure.  With the entire business resting on the weather, it is nearly impossible to predict if it will be a good or bad season and the potential of the seasons in the future.  It would be very hard to see skiing do well if this weather pattern continues as it seems to be continuing to get warmer each year leading to less snowfall.  However, skiing will always be around, and most likely always be successful as long as they make good financial decisions and find ways to keep customers coming back.

Works Cited

Sellers, John. "Ski Resorts Struggling To Make Snow With Warm Temperatures." CBS Denver. CBS Denver, 24 Oct. 2016. Web. 19 Feb. 2017.

New Bucks Arena

By Sydney Kaine
On June 18th, 2016 groundbreaking and construction began for the new Wisconsin Entertainment and Sports Center. The arena will house the Milwaukee Bucks as well as the Marquette Golden Eagles men’s basketball team. The construction cost of this building is $524 million and is expected to open early 2018. The Milwaukee city council has signed a 30-year lease to pay off the expenses and well as Marquette University for their share of home games.
Many people are content with the BMO Harris Bradley Center. However, not many are unaware that the BMO Harris Bradley Center is 28 years old and one of the oldest active complex centers in the NBA. Besides the fact that the new arena will be another cool building in Milwaukee, there are multiple economic benefits for the city has a whole.
According to a study done by the Metropolitan Milwaukee Association of Commerce, “Milwaukee Bucks’ proposed sports and entertainment district could yield approximately 2,100 permanent non-construction, non-arena jobs. These jobs would be on top of the 14,000 construction jobs projected for the development by the construction group Building Advantage, and the sports and operations jobs at the arena that would be created and maintained by keeping the Milwaukee Bucks in town.” The number of jobs provided through the production of this arena is a marginal benefit, the additional benefit arising from a unit increase in a particular activity.
Not only will the arena provide jobs for citizens but it will appeal to a new crowd, causing there to be an increase in profit for the Bucks and other associations. Just by looking at the blueprints for the arena, I get excited and want to go to a Buck’s game. Aside from games the arena will also house concerts, hockey games, and ice shows such as Disney on Ice!
As with any large decision comes marginal costs, the additional benefit arising from a unit increase in a particular activity. Unlike the Golden state Warriors’ arena that was paid in full by 20 investors, tax payers money in addition to contributors such as the Milwaukee Bucks and Herb Kohl will pay for the funding of the arena. Some people are upset about the change in the increase of taxes.
The opportunity cost of building this multi-purpose, high-tech building is that fewer taxes will go to other needed areas such as improving our highways. However, the opportunity cost of keeping the BMO Harris Center and not building this facility would mean losing out on new profit and thousands of jobs. The marginal benefits outway the marginal costs, therefore, making this arena a positive economic decision for the greater Milwaukee area.  
To see the Buck’s arena preview and vision yourself, please click here to watch a short YouTube video.

Works Cited:

"Wisconsin Entertainment and Sports Center." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Feb. 2017. Web. 19 Feb. 2017.
"Bucks Release New Arena Renderings Ahead of Design Submission to City." NBA. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2017.
Murphy , Bruce. "Murphy's Law: 10 Key Issues in NBA Arena Debate." Urban Milwaukee. N.p., 24 Apr. 2014. Web. 19 Feb. 2017.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

The Secondary Market of Music Festival Tickets
Written by: Rachel Reyes

Save the date! Lollapalooza Music Festival will return August 3-6 this year at Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois! However, there is probably a more important date you will need figure out prior to the festival. As of right now, the date to purchase tickets directly from the Lollapalooza website is unknown. Why, you might ask? Last year for example, the four day pass sold out in less than hour, even before the lineup was released (Swartz). This exclusive festival has built up a reputation that it’s tickets are limited, and that its lineup will always be worth your money, which I believe is why they keep their release date a secret. For me, it personally keeps me on my toes. For those who can’t snag a ticket within that first hour this year, they will have to succumb to second hand sellers like Craigslist, Ebay, Seatgeek, Stubhub, etc. It may seem as if this is still a great option, but with the tickets having such a high value, the secondary market will inflate the prices beyond belief. However, in my opinion, I believe for regular people just like, joining the secondary market to sell music festival tickets a great invest of your money. In 2013, a three day pass was sold by Lollapalooza for $235, but $300 or more on Craigslist and $290 or more on StubHub. One-day passes were $95 each, but Friday-only tickets on StubHub were selling for $171 or more. Saturday tickets were $215 or more on StubHub or $200 or more on Craigslist (Bauer). In 2015, the average price for a 3-day pass to Lollapalooza was $398.81 on the secondary market. That marks a price jump of 45% over the $275 face price. The cheapest available 3-day pass was listed for $313, still 13.8% above face value (Lawrence). These people in the second hand market are making substantial profit and I think it’s awesome for them. Although it is a disadvantage to Lollapalooza-goers like myself, I understand why people would inflate the prices of these tickets in the secondary market. The value of the tickets is incredible, and it makes sense as to why they would demand more money for these tickets.

(Photo from Kuchik: 2015 crowd at a concert during Lollapalooza)

As seen in this photo, the crowds at Lollapalooza are massive. The 2015 crowd reached 300,000 attendees (Waddell). The secondary market will continue to thrive in my opinion. Those who want to see their favorite artists perform life will do whatever they can to get their hands on those awesome three day passes.
Works Cited
Bauer, Kelly. “Lollapalooza Tickets: Prices On the Rise Among Resellers - The Loop.” DNAinfo Chicago, 30 July 2013, www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20130730/loop/lollapalooza-tickets-prices-on-rise-among-resellers.
Kuchik, Natalie. “Top 9 Bands & Artists Rumored to Perform at Lollapalooza 2015.” AXS, 24 Mar. 2015, www.axs.com/top-9-bands-artists-rumored-to-perform-at-lollapalooza-2015-45723. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017.
Lawrence, Jesse. “After Onsale And Lineup Reveal, Secondary Market Lollapalooza Tickets Averaging Well Over Face Value.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 25 Mar. 2015, www.forbes.com/sites/jesselawrence/2015/03/25/after-onsale-and-lineup-reveal-secondary-market-lollapalooza-tickets-averaging-well-over-face-value/#70eb179c7fee. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017.
Swartz, Tracy. “Lollapalooza 4-Day General Admission Passes Quickly Sell Out.” Chicagotribune.com, 22 Mar. 2016, www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/music/ct-lollapalooza-4-day-passes-sell-out-20160322-story.html.
Waddell, Ray. “Lollapalooza Draws 300,000 to Chicago.” Billboard, 5 Aug. 2015, www.billboard.com/articles/business/6655948/lollapalooza-draws-300000-to-chicago. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017.
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